Dolginovo (Dolhinov / Dolguinovo / Dolhinow /Dolne) | Minsk

Henia (born Segalchik) and Avraham Smorgonski with children. Avraham and Ester had 3 daughters Avraham and Henia had 4 children (Shlomo, Ida, Joseph Haim, and Haya, all but Shlomo perished. © Amir Dekel taken from eilatgordinlevitan.com/dolhinov/dolhinov. Herzel Ben-Tov (Gitelson)  was born in Dolhinov and immigrated to Israel before the Holocaust. The photo is from his visit to Dolhinov in 1937.  ©Taken from http://www.eilatgordinlevitan.com/dolhinov/dolhinov.html Courtesy of his grandson Alon Ben-tov The Lichterman children, a Holocaust survivor. ©Taken from http://www.eilatgordinlevitan.com/dolhinov/dolhinov.html / The former synagogue of the village of Dolginovo, which functions today as an agricultural warehouse.© Jethro Massey-Yahad-In Unum Apolonia Z., born in 1928, heard several bursts of gunfire. Later, she saw Jewish bodies scattered on the ground in the forest behind the river, near the Kameno village. There were children among the victims. © Jethro Massey/Yahad-In Unum Klementina P., born in 1935,   saw a Jewish lady being shot by a German. She ran out of the house inside the ghetto and was shot in the back. She was about 18 years old. She had red hair.    © Jethro Massey/Yahad-In Unum Ivan Y., born in 1934,was travelling from Budslav by cart, and the Germans were standing on the crossroads. They spotted the Jewish woman with a 5-year-old child, stopped the cart, forced them off the cart and shot them with rifles. © Jethro Massey/Yahad Stanislav B., born in 1931, remembered how a German soldier wanted to kill his father for helping Jews and told him to dig a pit, but a senior German officer arrived and stopped it.   © Jethro Massey/Yahad-In Unum The execution place of about 1,000 Jews in the barn in Dulginovo. © Jethro Massey-Yahad-In Unum The place of reburying of about 1,000 Jews killed in the barn in Dolginovo. © Jethro Massey-Yahad-In Unum The street where the Jews from Dolginovo were shot. © Jethro Massey-Yahad-In Unum Next to the Jewish cemetery, there is a burial place of the Jewish victims burned in a barn on the outskirts of the town. © Jethro Massey-Yahad-In Unum Yahad team during the interview with Stanislav B. in Dolginovo. © Jethro Massey/Yahad-In Unum

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Execution of Jews in Dolginovo

2 Execution site(s)

Kind of place before :
Jewish cemetery/Field
Memorials :
Yes
Period of occupation:
1941-1944
Number of victims :
Over 2,300

Witness interview

Stanislav B., born in 1931, remembered: “When the Jews were confined in the ghetto, some people looted from their property, but the Germans were strict with the looters. A Jewish friend Yovna left better clothes, suits and a sewing machine to give to my father. Yovna also asked my father to lend him a cart to bring the belongings to the ghetto. The Jew brought some wooden planks for the favor and unloaded them in the courtyard of my father. A German soldier wanted to kill my father for helping Jews and told him to dig a pit, but a senior German officer arrived and stopped that”. (Testimony n°911, interviewed in Dolginovo, on May 23, 2016)

Soviet archives

“On April 12, 1942 300 Gestapo soldiers arrived in Dolginovo from Vileyka. They surrounded the town, gathered the entire Jewish population and escorted them to the factory in Dolginovo. There, they were locked up in a big barn. At the beginning, a German officer fired at them with a gun, but when he got tired of shooting, he ordered to burn alive all the remaining Jews in the barn. On this day 900 people were killed”. [Act drawn by the State Extraordinary Commission; RG 22.002M. Fond 7021 Opis 83, Delo 7]

German archives

“The first Aktion: April 1, 1942 : 800 Jews shot.
2nd Aktion: April 27-29, 1942: 1,200 Jews shot.
3rd Aktion: June 1, 1942: 300 Jews shot.
About 200 Jews escaped in the forests and joined the partisans”. [Excerpt of the testimony of a Jewish survivor. B162-1295 p.34]

Historical note

Dolginovo is located about 100 km north of Minsk. The first records about Jewish community date back to 16th century. In 1847 there were 1,194 Jews in the town; In fifty years the Jewish population increased and became larger than the non-Jewish residents. Thus, in 1897 almost 1900 out of 3,551 were Jews.  In 1865 there were 4 synagogues in the town. Due to the pogrom, carried out in July of 1919, and poor economic situation, many Jews immigrated or left Dolginovo for bigger towns. Thus, in 1921 there were only 1,747 Jews living in the town. The majority of Jews lived off of small and wholesale trade of fruits, grain. There were many specialists among the Jews as well, such as tailors, shoemakers, doctors etc. Jewish children went to Hebrew Tarbut school, but there were also those who attended the same school as poles and Belorussians. In 1920s a Zionist movement was organized but it was forbidden under Soviet rule. On the eve of the war there were about 3, 000 Jews in Dolginovo. The Germans occupied the town in the late June 1941. Less than 5% of Jews managed to flee before its arrival. 

Holocaust by bullets in figures

From the very beginning of the occupation all Jews were marked with a yellow Star of David on their chests and backs. The houses were marked with a word “Juden” written with black paint. All contact with non-Jews was forbidden. All the Jews fit to work were subjected to perform forced labor.

 Soon after the Germans’ arrival, 5 Jews accused of being Soviet spies were arrested and shot outside of the town.

According to the local witness, before being forced to move into the ghetto Jews lived in their houses for quite a short time. Some of them were killed in their homes if they refused to move.  The ghetto was created soon after on the modern day Krasnoarmeyskaya street; it was surrounded by a fence with barbed wire on top. The synagogue was included in the ghetto. All Jews wereforbidden from leaving the territory. The local villagers brought them food to barter. 

The first shooting was carried out on March 30, 1942, around midday, and lasted one to two hours. We were told by local residents that before the shooting, residents were told to stay at home; the announcement was made with loudspeaker from a car that passed down the street. All the Jews were first gathered at the central square, and after a selection the specialists were freed and about 1,000 Jews were taken in the direction of the Minsk, to the factory which belonged to Lemlin. Once there, they were forced to undress and shot. Their bodies were thrown into the barn which was set on fire at the end. According to the witness, after this mass execution, there were a couple of Jews who stayed in hiding but were found after. They were shot on the spot and their bodies were transport by the requisitioned people to the cemetery where they were buried.

 The second mass execution was carried out in the last few days of April, when more than 1,000 Jews were escorted out of town to the east in a column arranged by threes and shot. They were shot inside the wooden bar which was set on fire afterwards. Their remains were buried at the Jewish cemetery.

A final Aktion against the Jews of Dolginovo was carried out on May 21, 1942, during which the remaining craftsmen were killed. Only 200 Jews survived the Holocaust. 

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