Novogrudok (Nowogrodek, Novaredok) | Grodno

/ Former Jewish cemetery of Novogrudok © Victoria Bahr- Yahad-In Unum Yadviga P. remembers that “Juden haus” was written on some houses.    © Victoria Bahr- Yahad-In Unum Gueorguiy R., born in 1932: “The ghetto was surrounded with barbed wire. On Minskaya Street, there was a watchtower.”  © Victoria Bahr- Yahad-In Unum Yulia L. explains where the entries of the ghetto were © Victoria Bahr- Yahad-In Unum Yahad team during an interview. © Victoria Bahr- Yahad-In Unum Mass shooting site of about 5 100-5 500 Novogrudok Jews    © Victoria Bahr- Yahad-In Unum The monument to 52 Jewish men shot at the market place. Their bodies were buried in a mass grave at a Jewish cemetery. © Victoria Bahr- Yahad-In Unum

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Execution of Jews in Novogrudok

2 Execution site(s)

Kind of place before :
Jewish cemetery/Close to the village
Memorials :
Yes
Period of occupation:
1941 - 1944

Witness interview

Yulia L., born in 1932, remembers: "When I went to school, I passed in front of the ghetto, and I saw plenty of people’s arms reaching through the boards that surrounded the ghetto. These boards were taller than a man. People were asking for something to eat, but it was risky to give them something.” (Witness N°739 interviewed in April, 2014)

German archives

“We anticipated that an aktion was going to be conducted in the ghetto because the workshops were hermetically sealed. We went out and we had to line up in rows. Meanwhile, the Germans entered the workshops and inspected them, looking for hidden children. I saw them taking out approximately 10 children and throwing them in a truck by their hands or feet, like pieces of wood. The blood flowed in streams from the heads of the children.” [Deposition of Mordechaj M., Jewish survivor, December 1960, BALAR-Z94/59Vol.II-B162-3409]

Historical note

Novogrudok, once the capital of Lithuania in medieval times, is located 120 km west of Minsk. Of a population of nearly 13,000 inhabitants before the war, half were Jewish. It was home to Novardok Yeshiva, an internationally recognized and respected Talmudic school.  The majority of Jews were artisans or in charge of small trades. The German forces occupied the village at the end of June 1941.

Holocaust by bullets in figures

Prior to the Germans’ arrival, the city center, mainly inhabited by Jews, was heavily bombed and destroyed. Many Jews were killed on this occasion and houses destroyed. During the occupation, the city was the seat of a Gebietskommissar, directly in charge of the Jews’ fate. The Germans forced Jewish men to clear rubble from the streets. On July 26, 1941, after a selection on the market square, 50 men were shot on the spot. Their corpses were buried in the Jewish cemetery. In December 1941, a fenced ghetto was established in the Peresieka quarter, made up of about 28 houses. On December 8, 1941, after a selection, more than 5,000 Jews were shot in pits dug in advance near the Skrydlevo quarter. According to a witness interviewed by Yahad, after the shootings, the location was guarded by local policemen for several days.

Every day, several hundred Jews were taken out of the ghetto to work in different places as craftsmen. Thus, in the former courthouse, a kind of forced labor camp was created, fenced and guarded by local police. In spring 1942, Jews from neighboring locations like Liubcha and Koreliche were taken to the Novogrudok ghetto. At this time, there were more than 6,500 Jews gathered there. On August 7, 1942, most of the remaining Jews of the ghetto were killed in pits near the village of Slukhovichi. Another extermination took place on February 4, 1943 at the same place.

The last Jews were kept in the camp that had previously been a courthouse until May 7, 1943, when 400 of them where shot in an aktion that took place just near the camp. The last 250 Jews were able to flee during a famous escape, during which they built and fled through a tunnel. Many of them joined the Jewish Bielskiy partisans in the nearby Naliboki Forest.

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