Sambir | Lviv

Jews cleaning their wounds after they were beaten by the Ukrainians © Yad Vashem Photo Archive Jews being arrested by Hungarian soldiers, 1941© Yad Vashem Photo Archive Round-up of Jewish men © Yad Vashem Photo Archive A Jew beaten by two local civilians © Yad Vashem Photo Archive / Former building of the Judenrat © Erez Lichtfeld – Yahad – In Unum Inside of modern day administration’s bulding. During the occupation it was a Judenrat. © Erez Lichtfeld – Yahad – In Unum Former location of the ghetto © Erez Lichtfeld – Yahad – In Unum Mikhail D., boen in 1928: "All the Jews from Turky, Sambir and Stary Sambir were confined to the ghetto situated in the area of Sambir called ’Blish’. It was fenced in with barbed wire." © Erez Lichtfeld – Yahad-In Unum Yaroslav G., born in 1932, saw several shootings in the cemetery © Erez Lichtfeld – Yahad – In Unum Maria G., born in 1926: "The Germans rounded up the Jews near the slaughter house. After, the trucks arrived and took them away. Everythign happened during the day and we could see it." © Erez Lichtfeld – Yahad – In Unum The location of the execution site with a memorative inscription © Erez Lichtfeld – Yahad – In Unum Yahad’s team during the interview  © Erez Lichtfeld – Yahad – In Unum Local witness near the memorial to the Jews murdered by Nazis in Sambir  © Erez Lichtfeld – Yahad – In Unum

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Execution of Jews in Sambir

1 Execution site(s)

Kind of place before :
Forest
Memorials :
No
Period of occupation:
1941-1944

Witness interview

Yaroslav recalls: “ I saw Jews digging graves 15 to 30 meters wide in the Jewish cemetery under the supervision of the Germans. They were then shot at the edge of the grave. The children were thrown alive in the graves. These actions lasted several hours. There were many graves in the cemetery”. (Witness N°750, interviewed in Sambir, on January 13, 2009).

German archives

“The Jews, there were only men, were put into trucks and taken to a mine 2 km from Sambir. Then, at the execution site, the Jews were put into two or three rows. They were then shot. A unit of the SD had to control if the Jews were dead. If it was not the case, they received another bullet in the neck”. [Deposition of a member of the Schutzpolizei, 1960, B162-5344].

Historical note

Sambir is located 68 km west of Lviv. There were around 8,000 Jews in 1939 in the village. The Jews lived in the city-center. There was a Jewish school and a synagogue. The Jews were merchants, craftsmen and artisans. The German occupation began on June 30, 1941.

Holocaust by bullets in figures

In March 1942, an open ghetto was established in the village. In May, there were around 6,500 Jews in the ghetto because a lot of Jews had managed to flee before the German occupation. Between August and October 1942, there were four Jewish actions carried out in the village. The first action took place on August 4, 1942. A selection was organized in the stadium by the German gendarmerie, Ukrainian police and a team of the Security police. 150 Jews were murdered. On this day, 600 Jews were also selected for the Janowska Street labor camp in Lviv. On August 6, these  Jews were transferred to Lviv. Other Jews were brought to the camp. During this action which lasted three days, 4, 000 Jews were shot. The second action took place on September 25-26, 1942. The Jewish Council selected 300 Jews who were shot in the forest of Ralivka, also called Radlowicze. Yahad’s witness Anton T. (Witness N°756) saw how the Jews of Sambir were brought to the forest of Ralivka. They were put on a plank in the middle of the grave and then shot. Other Jews had to put the corpses into the grave. The witness saw two big graves in the forest.  On October 17-18 and 22, 1942, a third and then fourth action was perpetrated by the German gendarmerie, Schutzpolizei, and the Ukrainian police. Jews were collected from the jail and from nearby villages. During the third action, 1,000 Jews were sent to Belzec and during the fourth action, 460 Jews were sent to Belzec. During the four actions which were perpetrated from August to October 1942, 5000 Jews were sent from Sambir to Belzec. The open ghetto became a closed ghetto in December 1942. Several actions took place in the ghetto from February to June 1943. During the first action, on February 13, 1943, 500 Jews were executed in the forest of Ralivka. On April 14, 1943, a second action was carried out during which 1,200 Jews were selected and 900 were shot in the cemetery. According to Yahad’s witness, Yaroslav (Witness N°750), several shootings took place in the cemetery. On May 20-22, 1943, a third ghetto action was carried out and several hundreds of Jews “incapable of working” were shot in the forest of Ralivka. Yahad’s witness Iaroslav declared that the Germans were drunk when they brought the Jews to the forest. The liquidation of the ghetto took place on June 5, 1943 and 1,000 Jews were shot in the forest of Ralivka.

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