Dashiv (Dashev, Daszów) | Vinnytsia

Initiators of the erection of the monument to the Holocaust victims of Dashiv: M. Veksler, M. Parkhomovskiy, and N. Grinberg, at the monument. ©Photo archive, taken from yadvashem.org

Execution of Jews in Dashiv

1 Execution site(s)

Kind of place before:
Anti-tank trench
Period of occupation:
Number of victims:

Soviet archives

"The commission established the following facts: in October-November 1941, 814 people of Jewish origin were shot dead by the Germano-fascist occupiers and their accomplices. All these civilians of Jewish origin were forced to leave [their] apartments before being taken, under a reinforced guard of [German] gendarmes and [local] policemen, to the territory of the village of Polevoye, in Dashev district [today Dashiv], to an anti-tank trench. There, they were all forced to take off their clothes and shoes, and then, naked, were shot to death, while small children were thrown alive [into the trench]." [Act drawn by State Extraordinary Soviet Commission (ChGK), on November 27, 1944, p.38; GARF 7021-54-1266/ Copy USHMM RG.22-002M]

Historical note

Dashiv is located approximately 86 km (53 mi) southeast of Vinnytsia, nestled along the banks of the Sob River. Comprising three parts that were once distinct villages—Staryi Dashiv, Novyi Dashiv, and Polevoye—the town’s roots can be traced back to the 17th century, when it was a part of the Kingdom of Poland. The first documented Jewish community in Dashiv emerged in the 18th century, yet its numbers dwindled towards the end of the century due to attacks by Haidamaks, specifically targeting the Jewish population.

After the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, Dashiv became part of the Russian Empire. Subsequent years saw an influx of Following the Second Partition of Poland in 1793, Dashiv became part of the Russian Empire. This period witnessed a significant influx of Jewish immigrants to Eastern Europe, resulting in a notable rise in the Jewish population. By the 1800 census, Jews accounted for almost 52% of the total population, with 2,911 individuals engaged mainly in commerce and artisanal work, contributing significantly to the town’s economy. However, the Jewish community faced adversity during the Russian Civil War. Pogroms in 1917 and 1919 claimed the lives of several Jewish residents, prompting others to seek refuge in larger urban centers.

During the Soviet era, social and political upheavals led to the establishment of cooperatives for artisans, causing a decline in private businesses. Consequently, some Jews transitioned to agricultural work, forming their kolkhoz, while others found opportunities in government service. Noteworthy developments during this time included the establishment of a Yiddish school and council.

By 1939, Dashiv’s Jewish population numbered 967 individuals, constituting 34.1% of the total populace, with an additional 452 Jews residing in nearby areas. With the onset of the Second World War and the Nazi occupation of Poland, several Jewish families sought refuge in Dashiv. As the war reached the Soviet Union, some Jewish residents managed to evacuate to eastern regions, while others were conscripted into the Red Army.

Holocaust by bullets in figures

On July 25, 1941, Dashiv fell under German occupation, leading to the establishment of a German gendarmerie post and a Ukrainian police unit in the town. After a brief period of military control, Dashiv transitioned to German civil administration in November 1941. The summer and fall of 1941 was characterized by the enforcement of anti-Jewish policies. These measures included the establishment of a Judenrat, mandatory wearing of the distinctive Star of David symbols, and the confiscation of valuables. Jews were coerced into forced labor, movement restrictions were imposed, and open ghettos were created in the Jewish quarters of Staryi Dashiv and Novyi Dashiv.

Most of the Jews from Staryi Dashiv were killed during an Aktion conducted on October 28, 1941. This operation, led by a detachment of Einsatzkommando 5 from Einsatzgruppe C, assisted by other German forces and the Ukrainian police unit, resulted in victims being rounded up in the town center before being marched to the village of Polevoye. At the execution site, victims were forced to undress and enter an anti-tank trench, where they were shot to death. The Aktion continued in November 1941, with approximately 200 Jews brought from Kytaihorod being executed, bringing the total number of victims to 814. In Novyi Dashiv, 165 Jews were murdered, presumably on December 12, 1941, with another 37 Jews meeting the same fate on December 20, 1941.

Several Jewish craftsmen with their families, totaling about a dozen people, were spared during these mass shootings and remained in Staryi Dashiv for some time. However, many were executed in May 1942, in a ravine near the village of Kupchintsi, while others were taken to Monastyryshche and killed in August 1943. Only a handful of Jews from Dashiv managed to survive the war.

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