Dukora (Dukor) | Minsk

The manor house, 1932 © TUT.by taken from Wikipedia Under the occupation a German kommandantur was installed in this building © Jethro Massey/Yahad-In Unum / Zhanna S., born in 1931, saw the column of Jews being marched to the execution. © Jethro Massey/Yahad-In Unum Sofia R., born in 1931: “The column was guarded by only one or two Germans. People said the Jews could escape but they continued to walk.” © Jethro Massey/Yahad-In Unum Yahad’s team records the testimony of a local woman who saw the Jews being taken to the shooting site. © Jethro Massey/Yahad-In Unum In autumn 1941 394 Jews, including women and children, were shot and buried in the pit dug at this site. © Jethro Massey/Yahad-In Unum

Execution of Jews in Dukora

1 Execution site(s)

Kind of place before :
Swampland
Memorials :
Yes
Period of occupation:
1941-1944
Number of victims :
394

Witness interview

Zhanna S., born in 1931: “All the Jews were gathered at one place, there were even Jews from Hamburg. They were forbidden to leave the area and we couldn’t to go there either. The whole area was surrounded with a wooden fence with the inscription “Ghetto”. Most probably the Jews from Hamburg were confined there at night because nobody saw them being brought there.” (Witness n°953, interviewed in Dukora on August 11, 2017)

Soviet archives

“On October 8, 1941, a German punitive detachment of about 150 men arrived by truck from Minsk to Dukora. On the same day, at around 12 o’clock, they rounded up all the Jews of Dukora and nearby villages in Bolotianaya Street. In all, they gathered 394 men, women, and children. Then they took them to the Borovich-Perevelia meadow, ordered them to dig a pit, shot them and after put their bodies on a pile in the same pit. [...]
Besides that, in the summer of 1942, in Dukora, a German shot the innocent Maria Kadrach with a machine gun in the middle of the street. In the summer of 1943, the Germans killed Vladimir Mazovich on the way from the mill in Dukora. They used him as a target for their shooting practice. During the German occupation of the town, approximately 1,000 civilians were shot. The shootings were mainly carried out by a German punitive detachment which was established in the Dukora sovkhoz. [...]” [Testimony of Sofia K., born in 1928, recorded by the State extraordinary commission (ChGK) on October 10, 1944; RG 22.002M: 7021-87-13]

Historical note

Dukora is an agricultural town located on the river Svisloch 30 km south-east of Minsk. In the 16-18th centuries it was under the control of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and in 1793 it became a part of the Russian empire. The first records regarding a local Jewish community date back to the early 18th century. According to the census in 1897 604 Jews lived in Dukora comprising 44,5% of total population. In 1902 Nisson Telushkin became the 21st rabbi of Dukora. In 1912 a Jewish saving and loan company was created, later a Cheder was established in the town.  During the collectivization several Jewish families established a kolkhoz in Dukora, a Yiddish elementary school was opened at the same time. In 1923 501 Jews lived in the town, they were engaged in small-scale trade, handicrafts or worked in kolkhoz.  Dukora was occupied by German troops at the end of June, 1941.

Holocaust by bullets in figures

Soon after the occupation all Jews were confined in a ghetto, surrounded with a wooden fence. The Jews weren’t allowed to leave it and the non-Jewish residents weren’t allowed to enter it either.  According to one of the witnesses interviewed by Yahad team, some Jews from Hamburg were taken to Dukora and confined in the ghetto with the others. The execution took place in early October 1941, when 394 Jews were taken from the ghetto to the outskirts of the town and shot. The execution was conducted by a German reserve police battalion with the participation of Lithuanians and local police. According to historical sources another part of Dukora’s Jewish population was also shot in Uzliany.

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