1 Execution site(s)
Ivan Vasyl, born in 1931: “The Jews were being executed in the Jewish cemetery. I saw it with my own eyes. The grave was as big as this house. They also brought in Jews from other villages. They were gathered by the Council office and then shot at the Jewish cemetery. I saw one group of maybe 10 people being shot. Later, in 1942 or 1943, a lot of the Jews were taken on the carts to other districts, like Peremyshliany and the other village, I forgot its name.” (Witness n°3035U, interviewed in Hlyaniany, on December 15, 2021)
“In July 1941 10 Jews murdered for having collaborated with the Soviets. In 1942, all the Jews of the village were taken to the camp located in the Peremyshliany district. 80 Jews fled and returned to Hlyniany. The Germans staged a roundup and arrested about 60 Jews. They took them to the Jewish cemetery, forced them to dig their own graves, lined them up at the edge and shot them with automatic weapons in the head. To prevent the villagers from seeing what was happening, they cordoned off the killing site. Then they threw a thin layer of earth on it and forced a few local people to fill in the pit in such a way that no traces remained. The execution took place in the morning.” (Summary from the act drawn up by Soviet State Extraordinary Commission (ChGK), in 1944; GARF 7021-67-82)
Hlyniany was established in 1397 by the Polish nobleman Tarnowski. It was successively ruled by Poland, Austria and Poland once again. In 1939, it was under Soviet rule. The first information regarding Jews in Hlyniany appeared in 1474. In 1704 the first synagogue was built. The Jews of Hlyniany made their living from trade, handicraft, carting, portage; a few of them were lawyers and doctors, carters, the tavern and restaurant owners. At the end of the 19th century, there were more than 1,705 Jews living in Hlyniany, comprising about 43% of the total population (3,965). The Jews were involved in the political life of the town. The Zionist Union was founded in Hlyniany in 1898. In 1906, Miriam Korkiss founded a Zionist women’s organization. In 1909 a Hebrew school was founded. By 1920 2,418 Jews remained in the town, making up 45% of the total population. At this time many Jews moved out to bigger towns looking for better opportunities. Under the Soviet rule, starting from September 1939, all Jewish institutions and movements were banned. In 1940 several factory owners, wealthy merchants, Zionist activists, members of the Bund and Jews accused of economic crimes were jailed and exiled to the Soviet Union. Among those incarcerated was Dr. Tannenboim, chairman of the Zionist Union. Jewish supporters of the new regime filled important roles in the local government. During the 1939 – 1940 academic year a new school opened in which the language of instruction was Yiddish. After war broke out between the Soviet Union and Germany, groups of Jews fled along with the retreating Soviet army at the end of June 1941.
On July 1, 1941 the Germans occupied the city. After a few days, an order was given stating that the Jews must wear a white ribbon marked with a Star of David on their right arms. On July 9, 1941, all of the men were ordered to present themselves in the town square to register for work. Many people preferred to ignore the order and go into hiding. On July 11, 1941 ten Jews were arrested, accused of being Soviet activists and executed by Germans in a forest near the city. On August 22, 1941 the order was given to establish a Judenrat headed by Aharon Hochberg. At the end of August 1941 a “contribution” of 1 million rubles was imposed on the Jews of Hlyniany. According to some sources, on September 26, 1941, the Judenrat was ordered to send 100 men to a work camp in Kurowice. On December 18, 1941, 52 Jews were sent to the work camp in Yaktorov but some of them were released in exchange for a ransom. In January 1942, there were 1499 Jews left in town and in July 1942 there were 1600. All these Jews were transferred to the Peremyshliany ghetto in November 1942. 80 Jews managed to flee and returned to Hlyniany. The Germans staged a roundup and arrested about 60 Jews. They took them to the Jewish cemetery and shot them.
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