1 Execution site(s)
Ievguenia B., born in 1932: “My grandmother’s house was taken by our neighbor Haim because of our debts. I will tell you how it happened. My grandfather used to like to drink, and Haim owned an tavern where my grandfather would often go. Haim would let him drink on credit because he trusted him. My grandfather would give money back when he could. At some point, he didn’t give any money for a year, but he came to pay the next one. When he wanted to pay Haim he told him that the money wasn’t enough to cover the debt because of interest. My grandfather didn’t know what to do and where to look for money. Then he died suddenly, and Haim took my grandmother to court to make her pay for her husband’s debt. At the court Haim said that my grandfather didn’t pay any money back, which was a lie, but the court believed him and took my grandmother’s house to pay the debt. All the family had to move out. When Haim was taken along with other Jews [during German occupation] he came to see my mother and to say sorry for what he did in the court. He admitted he had lied back then. My mother gave him some milk, bread, which he drank and then left. We never saw him again.” (Witness n°2457U, interviewed in Mostyska, on July 18, 2018)
"[…] After the retreat of the Red Army in 1941, as soon as German units occupied the town, they began to terrorize and persecute the civilians who had remained in the occupied territory, both in the Iablonov district and in the town itself. Under the Soviets, in 1939-1941, around 1,185 Soviet citizens of Jewish nationality lived in the town of Iablonov [today Iabloniv]. In the spring of 1942, the German-Fascist authorities carried out a round-up of Soviet citizens of Jewish nationality. 120 Soviet citizens of Jewish nationality were shot immediately after the round-up in Iablonov itself. 1,055 people were sent by the Germans to Kolomia, where they were shot. In addition, the Germans detained civilians in the Kolomia prison, where they were shot. On one occasion, an announcement was made in Iablonov about the shooting of 30 hostages, Soviet citizens, including residents of the Iablonov district.
Question: List the surnames of the Soviet citizens shot or killed by other means on the orders of the German occupiers.
Answer: I remember that among those exterminated were Gaita (or Gueita) Tseikler, Rukh(..) Rat, (an illegible name), Khuna Milbauer, Levi Mogu(..), Petr Povlychko, Dmitri Pola(..), Bidach, Dominiuk (?). I do not know the names of the families of other victims." [Deposition of Iurii P., born 1899, Ukrainian, resident of the town of Iablonov, farmer, given to State Extraordinary Soviet Commmision (ChGK) on June 1, 1945; GARF 7021-73-21/Copy USHMM RG22-002M]
“The Aktionen in Jablonow [Iabluniv] and Pistyn took place on April 8, 1942. There were 1,700-1,800 Jews in Jablonow, and around 500 in Pistyn. The Gestapo invaded both towns at once, rounded up all the Jews together and shot some of them on the spot, while the others were taken to Kolomea [Kolomyia] and murdered there.” [German post-war justice report; BArch162-2176 p.14.]
Iabluniv is located on the banks of the river Luchka, 15 km (9mi) from Kolomyia and 70 km (42mi) south of Ivano-Frankivsk. Until 1772, it was part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and from 1772 until 1914, of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. From 1914 to 1919, the town was under the control of different states, from the Russian Empire to the Western Ukrainian People’s Republic (from 1918 until May 1919). During the interwar period, it was taken over by Poland before being occupied by the Soviet Union in September 1939. The first record of the Jewish community dates back to the mid-18th century. By 1900, the Jewish population had grown to 1,105, comprising 65% of the total population. Many Jews made their living from peddling, renting, owning inns, taverns, and shops, while others were craftsmen, mainly in the manufacturer of clothes, shoes, and rugs. The community had a synagogue, a Jewish cemetery, and a Hebrew school. Under the Soviet administration, in September 1939, all private businesses were nationalized, as well as the Jewish stores. Craftsmen were forced into cooperatives, and all religious and cultural movements were banned. One the eve of the war, about 1,200 Jews remained in Iabluniv with circa. 500 Jewish refugees who had arrived from occupied Poland.
Iabluniv was occupied by German troops during first days of July 1941. According to historical sources, there was no ghetto in Iabluniv. Jews continued to live in their houses until they were resettled in Kolomyia. Field research revealed that prior to the deportation carried out on April 8, 1942, all the Jews were rounded up and locked up in a building. Two or three days later, they were taken on foot to Kolomyia alongside the Jews from Kosiv who joined them on their way. Circa. 120 Jews who attempted to escape, or were found hidden, were shot on the spot. Their bodies were buried at the Jewish cemetery in two mass graves. The remaining 1,000 Jews were rounded and taken to the ghetto in Kolomyia, from where they were deported to Belzec in April or September 1942. The Aktion was conducted by Kolomyia Gestapo, under the command of SS-Oberstrumführer Peter L***.
To learn more about the fate of the Jews in Kolomyia, please refer to the corresponding profile.
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