Yaltushkiv (Ialtushkiv, Ialtushkov) | Vinnytsia

Oleksandr K., born in 1928: “The Jews were strip naked before being shot.”©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum Oleksandr K., born in 1928: “There was one policeman who conducted the shooting. He was sat on a chair in a small ditch dug in front of the pit and fired at the victims with a submachine gun.”©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum Hanna V., born in 1934: “Two local men from Myhalivtsi were requisitioned to fill in the spit after the shooting.” ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum Vira Sh., born in 1926: “We left the field in the direction of the brickyard that was located on another side. When we reached the brickyard, we saw the Jews being led away.” ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum Hanna S., born in 1929: “The Jews were shot in groups of ten next to the pit. Before that, they were forced to undress.” ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum The Yahad team with Hanna S. during an interview.  Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum The Yahad team with Oleksandr K. during an interview at the execution site. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum Oleksandr K., born in 1928: “The Jews were pushed towards the pit in groups of four or five by the Germans and then one shooter fired at them.”©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum The memorial in the memory of the Jewish victims murdered by a German SD unit in August and October 1942. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum There are lists of victims at the memorial erected next to the mass graves. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum The field where the sand pits were dug in which the Jews were murdered in August and October 1942. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum A drone view at the execution site where, according to the Soviet archives, 1,644 Jews were murdered. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum The former Jewish cemetery in Yaltushkiv with some surviving tombstones. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum The former Jewish cemetery in Yaltushkiv with some surviving tombstones. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum The location of the ghetto in Yaltushkiv, which existed from December 1941 until October 1942 when the last inmates were murdered. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum The location of the ghetto in Yaltushkiv, which existed from December 1941 until October 1942 when the last inmates were murdered. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum The road down which the Jews were taken from the ghetto to the execution site located close to the village of Myhalivtsi. ©Les Kasyanov/Yahad - In Unum

Execution of Jews in Yaltushkiv

1 Execution site(s)

Kind of place before:
Sand pits
Memorials:
Yes
Period of occupation:
1941-1944
Number of victims:
1,644

Witness interview

Hanna S., born in 1929: "It was in summer. That day I was grazing my cow, next to the railroads. My mother was working in the field not far from me. So, I was grazing the cow and suddenly I saw a big column of people being led away. There were men, women and children in the column. They had some belongings with them and were being marched from Yaltushkiv. The column was escorted by Germans with dogs. They were marched towards the pit that had been dug in advance to be shot. Before being shot they had to undress and then, in groups of tens, they approached the pit and were shot with automatic weapon. I was at about 100m away from the execution site, but once they started the shooting I got scared and ran away." (Witness n°2575U, interviewed in Myhaitsi April 09, 2019)

Soviet archives

"During the occupation of the town of Yaltushkov, Bar district, Germano-fascist troops shot 1,644 innocent Soviet citizens, among whom 450 people shot in August 1942; 1,194 people on October 15, 1942. The shootings were conducted 2 km north of the village. All bodies were buried in two mass graves at the execution site." [Act n°10 drawn up by Soviet State Extraordinary Commission, on April 14, 1945; GARF 7021-54-1273, p.104].

German archives

"The shooting lasted until 2 p.m. - that is, a total of 6 hours [shooting in Bar]. At about 4 p.m. the same day, we drove to the village of Yaltushkov, where, under the direction of me, E. Maks Sch., and Police Commander A., the 500 Jews who were in the Yaltushkov ghetto were shot. The shooting was carried out by the same SD commando about 2.5 km northwest of the village, in the sand pits dug by the workers of the sugar factory before the shooting. The Aktion was carried out in the same way as in Bar. Among the victims were men, women and children of all ages. My participation in the shooting in this case was to take the Jews from the ghetto to the execution site. In the first and second cases, the pits were filled in with earth [...] I also participated with the other participants in the execution; later [the bodies] were buried deeper. The victims’ clothes were transported to a shed in Bar, and in Yaltushkov the clothes were stored in a building. Some clothes were sold to the local population, the rest were abandoned in the sheds." [Deposition of Richard Sch., border chief police chief; BArch162-7856]

Historical note

Yaltushkiv is located 89 km (55mi) west southwest of Vinnytsia. The first record of the Jewish community dates back to the 18th century. In 1897, 1,238 Jews lived in Yaltushkiv making up 35% of the total population. The majority of Jews lived of small-scale trade or handicraft. The community suffered greatly from the attacks of different units during the Civil War (1919-1921). Under the Soviet regime, private businesses were closed, and most Jews were employed as office workers or at small factories, like local sugar and textile factories, or industrial cooperatives. Many Jews started to work in the agriculture as the collective farms were created. In the 1930s, a Jewish kolkhoz was even created. On the eve of the war in 1939, 20% of the population was Jewish. Only 1,212 Jews remained in Yaltushkiv.

Holocaust by bullets in figures

Yaltushkiv was occupied by German forces on July 15, 1941. The territory was under German occupation. The anti-Jewish measures were adopted shortly after the occupation. Every Jew was marked with a yellow Star of David. They were also forced to perform hard labor, but continued to live in their homes until December 1941. On December 20, 1941, a ghetto was created. It was fenced in with barbed wire and guarded by local police. The first Aktion was conducted on August 19, 1942, by German Security Police, the Gendarmerie, helped by local policemen. On this day, about 200 Jews, according to a German report, or 450, according to a Soviet report, deemed unfit for work -- mainly women, children, and elderly people were selected and marched to the sand pits located north of Yaltushkiv close to the village of Myhalivtsi. Upon arrival, they were forced to strip naked and were shot on the edge of the pit in groups of five. Isolated shootings continued for several days after the Aktion when some Jews were found in hiding and taken to be shot at the same site. On October 15, 1942, several hundred (1,194, according to the Soviet archives) Jews still detained in the ghetto were taken to the same site, forced to take off their clothes and shot dead. Apparently German rural policemen from the area and local auxiliary policemen carried out this murder operation.  

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