1 Execution site(s)
Ryszard R. recalls: "There were Gendarmeria here. There were eight or ten gendarmes. They were all born in Poland, they lived all their lives here, with Poles. When the Germans arrived, they were appointed gendarmes.They had very big hats in gaudy colors and their uniforms were gray, similar to those of communist militia. They were grey like steel. And they had military boots. There were also the main SS office on Ogrodova street " (Eyewitness N°172, interviewed in Koło, on November 11, 2012)
"It happened straight after the German arrival. I saw all Jews, inhabitants of Kolo, being roughly taken by Germans. They made them line up, facing the wall, holding hands in the air and they were shot in that way. While coming back I didn’t see any dead bodies, only blood running down in the gutters. I also saw other Jews being gathered in the synagogue and burned there. Among the Jewish population there were women, men and children."[IPN-GK: Deposition of Janocka Aniela, made on October 25, 1968]
Kolo is located about 73 km (45.5 miles) northwest of Lodz. Among 13.000 residents there were 4.560 Jews in September, 1939. The city was occupied on September 19,1939 by German army.
The executions measures against the Jews were carried out by Wehrmacht soldiers and gendarmes. In December 1939 about 100 Jews were killed during the first Aktion. In December 1940, a ghetto was established and all the Jews were subjected to force labor. Supposedly, during the liquidation Aktion which lasted 3 days about 2,000 Jews were deported to the extermination camp in Chelmno where they were shot afterwards.
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